The circular economy can be applied at the level of an organisation or a territory through several approaches and tools.
One of the objectives of the circular economy is to extract as few natural resources as possible and, in particular, so-called scarce strategic resources. The development of a company's eco-design approach favours the reduction of its material consumption. An eco-designed product or service has a better environmental performance and generates an economic performance: innovation, improvement of the brand image, etc.
Industrial and territorial ecology makes it possible to analyse the flow of materials from one or more companies in a given territory with a view to seeking cooperation between economic players in order to set up synergies for mutualisation or substitution.
Prevention and avoidance of waste emissions are the ultimate goal. Another way of limiting environmental impacts is to extend the life of a product through re-use and repair, which allow us to maintain our products and make them last longer. Recycling and waste recovery remain essential to reduce the consumption of raw materials and energy used.
The implementation of new business models such as the functionality economy, which is based on the sale of a use rather than the sale of a product or a service in itself.